Skuteczność środków ograniczania ubóstwa na obszarach podmiejskich Zimbabwe na przykładzie regionu podmiejskiego Mutasa South

Autor

  • Nixon Goba Nixon Goba, Mutasa Rural District Council, 228 Managers Hill, Penhalonga, Zimbabwe
  • Blessing Gweshengwe Blessing Gweshengwe, PhD, Department of Rural and Urban Development, Great Zimbabwe University, P.O. Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8837-2874
  • Aaron Mabaso Aaron Mabaso, Department of Rural and Urban Development, Great Zimbabwe University, P.O. Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1735-9736
  • Frank Kapungu Frank Kapungu, Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8054-2018

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53098/wir012022/03

Słowa kluczowe:

ubóstwo, strefy podmiejskie, jakość życia, ograniczanie ubóstwa, cele zrównoważonego rozwoju, Zimbabwe

Abstrakt

Zagadnienie zawarte w pytaniu: „Jak skuteczne są środki walki z ubóstwem wdrażane w Zimbabwe?” nie było dotychczas poruszane w kontekście obszarów podmiejskich. Należałoby jednak je rozważyć, ponieważ kraj ten charakteryzuje wysoki wskaźnik ubóstwa, a jednocześnie władze i społeczeństwo Zimbabwe dążą do osiągnięcia Celu Zrównoważonego Rozwoju nr 1 z „Agendy 2030” ONZ nazwanego: „Koniec z ubóstwem”. Wykorzystując studium przypadku podmiejskiego regionu Mutasa South w Zimbabwe, niniejsze badanie miało na celu znalezienie odpowiedzi na postawione wyżej pytanie. Przyjęto metodologię eksploracyjną i zebrano dane od mieszkańców Mutasa South oraz od kluczowych informatorów z organizacji pozarządowych i Rady Okręgu Wiejskiego Mutasa. Z badania wynika, że ubóstwo przybiera tu różne formy. Środki ograniczania ubóstwa wdrażane na obszarze będącym przedmiotem badania obejmują pomoc żywnościową, edukacyjną i gotówkową, a także mikrofinansowanie i programy rolnicze. Skuteczność tych środków została zbadana na podstawie zakresu, w jakim programy obejmują wielorakie wymiary ubóstwa występujące w regionie Mutasa South. Jak stwierdzono, programy uwzględniają wszystkie wymiary ubóstwa, ale są też ich pewne aspekty, którym poświęca się mniej uwagi, stąd mają one tendencję do wykluczania niektórych ubogich z programów pomocowych.

Bibliografia

Abdul Razak R., Donkoh S., Ansah I. (2015). Towards women’s empowerment in peri-urban Tamale: The role of sustainable microfinance. UDS International Journal of Development, 2 (1), 160–173. https://doi.org/10.47740/34.UDSIJD6i.

Abdulai I., Derbile E., Fuseini M. (2021). Livelihood diversification among indigenous peri-urban women in the Wa Municipality, Ghana. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 18, 72–96. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjds.v18i1.4.

Adu-Okoree B. (2012). Peri-urban poverty: Can micro-finance be a panacea? International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4 (6), 190–198. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJSA11.147.

Allen A. (2010). Neither rural nor urban: Service delivery options that work for the periurban poor. In: M. Khurian, P. McCarney (eds.). Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services: Policy, Planning and Method (pp. 27–61). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9425-4_2.

Allen A., Davila J., Hofmann P. (2006). The peri-urban water poor: Citizens or consumers? Environment and Urbanization, 18 (2), 333–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247806069608.

Allen A., Hofmann P., Mukherjee J., Walnycki A. (2017). Water trajectories through non-networked infrastructure: Insights from peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Cochabamba and Kolkata. Urban Research & Practice, 10 (1), 22–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2016.1197306.

Amegah A.K. (2021). Slum decay in Sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Epidemiology, 5 (3), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1097/EE9.0000000000000158.

Banerjee M.M. (2016). “We routinely borrow to survive”: Exploring the financial capability of income-poor people in India. Social Work, 61 (4), 349–358. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/sww045.

Banu N., Fazal S. (2016). Urban fringe: Sustainability of livelihoods and well-being of urban fringe households. In: N. Banu, S. Fazal (eds.). Livelihood and Wellbeing in the Urban Fringe (pp. 153–167). New York: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39660-6_7.

Binala L. (2016). Irrigation cooperative as a strategy of peri-urban poverty reduction: Case study of Ward 5 in Epworth, Harare. In: C. Chirisa, E. Mazhindu, E. Bandauko (eds.).

Peri-Urban Developments and Processes in Africa with Special Reference to Zimbabwe (pp. 55–66). Cham: Springer.

Brand C. (2002). Making the Livelihoods Framework Work (RUP, No. 20). Harare: Department of Rural and Urban Planning, University of Zimbabwe.

Chambers R. (2012). Provocations for Development. Rugby, UK: Practical Action Publishing.

Chambers R. (2007). Poverty Research: Methodologies, Mindsets and Multidimensionality (Institutes of Development Studies, No. 293). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

Chingono N. (2021). Half of Zimbabweans fell into extreme poverty during Covid. The Guardian, June 21. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2021/jun/21/half-of-zimbabweans-fell-into-extreme-poverty-during-covid [access: 9th March 2022].

Chingono N. (2020). Zimbabwe urged to prioritise children as record poverty causes food shortages. The Guardian, January 24. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/jan/24/zimbabwe-urged-to-prioritise-children-as-record-poverty-causes-food-shortages [access: 2nd February 2022].

Devereux S., Sabates-Wheeler R., Longhurst R. (2012). Seasonality, Rural Livelihoods and Development. London–New York: Earthscan.

Eurostat (2021). Living conditions in Europe: Poverty and social exclusion. European Commission. https://static.poder360.com.br/2021/10/eurostat-pobreza-na-UE-out-2021.pdf [access: 22nd March 2022].

Faldi G., Rosati F.N., Moretto L., Teller J. (2021). A Multi-perspective discourse on the sustainability of water and sanitation service co-production in Global South Cities. In: J. Martinez, C.A. Mikkelsen, R. Phillips (eds.). Handbook of Quality of Life and Sustainability (pp. 53–80). New York: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50540-0_4.

Godinot X., Walker R. (2020). Poverty in all its forms: Determining the dimensions of poverty through merging knowledge. In: V. Beck, H. Hahn, R. Lepenies (eds.). Dimensions of Poverty: Measurement, Epistemic Injustices, Activism (pp. 263–279). New York: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31711-9_15.

Gordon D. (2010). Poverty. In: P. Townsend (ed.). The Peter Townsend Reader (pp. 129–268). Bristol: Policy Press.

Gratton C., Jones I. (2010). Research Methods for Sports Studies. London: Routledge.

Gweshengwe B. (2021). What is the state of poverty in Zimbabwe? https://blessinggweshengwe.wordpress.com/2021/10/05/what-is-the-state-of-poverty-in-zimbabwe/ [access: 15th March 2022].

Gweshengwe B. (2020). Seasonal poverty in Zimbabwe and Cambodia: A comparative analysis of the developing world. Cambodia Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 2 (1), 57–88. http://www.rupp.edu.kh/CJBAR/files/Vol-2-Issue-1/5-BLESSING-2020. pdf [access: 15th March 2022].

Gweshengwe B., Hassan N.H. (2020). Defining the characteristics of poverty and their implications for poverty analysis. Cogent Social Sciences Journal, 6 (1), 1–10 https://doi.org/10. 1080/23311886.2020.1768669.

Gweshengwe B., Hassan N.H. (2019). Knowledge to policy: Understanding poverty to create policies that facilitate Zero Poverty in Brunei Darussalam. Southeast Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19, 95–104.

Gweshengwe B., Matai J. (2022). Peri-urbanisation and the quality of life: Experiences of and lessons from the original inhabitants of Domboshava peri-urban area, Harare. International Journal of Community and Social Development, online. https://doi.org/10.1177/25166026221112520.

Hagen-Zanker J., Bastagli F., Harman L., Barca V., Sturge G., Schmidt T. (2016). Understanding the impact of cash transfers: The evidence. London: Overseas Development Institute. https://www.calpnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/10748.pdf [access: 15th March 2022].

Hungwe E. (2014). Land transactions and rural development policy in the Domboshava peri-urban communal area, Zimbabwe. Dissertation presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at Stellenbosch University. https://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/96059/hungwe_land_2014.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y [access: 28th August 2022].

Jenkins S.P. (2020). Perspectives on poverty in Europe: Following in Tony Atkinson’s footsteps. Italian Economic Journal, 6 (1), 129–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40797-019-00112-0.

Kalinowski S. (2020). Poverty in rural areas: An outline of the problem. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum – Oeconomia, 19 (4), 69–78. https://doi.org/10.22630/ASPE.2020.19.4.42.

Kalinowski S., Wyduba W. (2021). Rural poverty in Poland between the wars. Rural History, 32 (2), 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0956793321000091.

Kirwan B.E., McMillan M. (2007). Food aid and poverty. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 89 (5), 1152–1160.

Maoneni N.S. (2014). Impact of Informal Urban Expansion on Peri-urban Livelihoods: The Case of Seke Communal Lands. Gweru: Midlands State University.

Marshall F., Randhawa P. (2017). Tackling poverty and food security: Lessons from India’s peri-urban frontier. International Institute for Environment and Development. Briefing. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep02592 [access: 15th March 2022].

McNabb D.E. (2010). Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Méndez-Lemus Y., Vieyra A. (2014). Tracing processes in poverty dynamics: A tale of peri-urban small-scale farmers in Mexico City. Urban Studies, 51 (10), 2009–2035. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013505923.

Moretto L., Faldi G., Ranzato M., Rosati F.N., Boozi J.I., Teller J. (2018). Challenges of water and sanitation service co-production in the global South. Environment and Urbanization, 30 (2), 425–443. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247818790652.

Mutasa F. (2015). The future of the Basic Education Assistance Module, a poverty alleviation strategy in Zimbabwe. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 5 (3), 155–164. https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v5i3.8331. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.894.900&rep=rep1&type=pdf [access: 15th March 2022].

Narayan D., Chambers R., Shah M.K., Petesch P. (2000). Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change. New York: Oxford University Press.

OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] (2007). Addressing the multiple dimensions of poverty. In: Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Policy Guidance for Donors (pp. 31–36). Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264024786-4-en.

OPHI [Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative] (2018). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2018: The Most Detailed Picture to Date of the World’s Poorest People. Oxford: Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI), University of Oxford. https://ophi.org.uk/gmpi-2018/ [access: 22nd March 2022].

Reda M.A., Calfat G. (2020). Food aid impact on poverty reduction: Empirical evidence from rural households in Ethiopia. IOB Discussion Papers. Antwerp: Institute of Development Policy and Management.

Sen A. (1999). Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Siddique M. (2010). NGOs and poverty issues in peri-urban areas. Economia. Seria Management, 13 (1), 72–88.

UNDP, OPHI (2020). Charting Pathways out of Multidimensional Poverty: Achieving the SDGs. New York: United Nations Development Programme, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. https://ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/G-MPI_Report_2020_Charting_Pathways.pdf [access: 22nd March 2022].

UNDP, OPHI (2019). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities. New York: United Nations Development Programme, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

UNICEF (2022). Africa to drastically accelerate progress on water, sanitation and hygiene. https://www.unicef.org/senegal/en/press-releases/africa-drastically-accelerate-progress-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-report [access: 31st March 2022].

UNICEF Zimbabwe (2021). Half of Zimbabweans faced extreme poverty in 2020 due to COVID-19: Rapid Poverty Income Consumption and Expenditure Survey (PICES). https://www.unicef.org/zimbabwe/press-releases/half-zimbabweans-faced-extreme-poverty-2020-due-covid-19-rapid-poverty-income [access: 31st March 2022].

Wegedie T.K. (2018). Determinants of peri-urban households’ livelihood strategy choices: An empirical study of Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences, 4 (1), 1562508. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1562508.

World Bank (2022). GDP per capita (current US$) – Zimbabwe. Washington D.C.: World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?locations=ZW [access: 31st March 2022].

World Bank (2020). Africa Eastern and Southern Zimbabwe. Poverty & Equity Brief (PEB). World Bank Group. https://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/poverty/987B9C90-CB9F-4D93-AE8C-750588BF00QA/SM2020/Global_POVEQ_ZWE.pdf [access: 31st March 2022].

Yang L. (2017). The relationship between poverty and inequality: Concepts and measurement. In: CASE Papers /205. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE. https://ideas.repec.org/p/cep/sticas/-205.html [access: 31st March 2022].

Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (2019). Zimbabwe Poverty Report 2017. Harare: Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency. http://www.zimstat.co.zw/wp-content/uploads/publications/Income/Finance/Poverty-Report-2017.pdf [access: 31st March 2022].

Pages

57-76

Jak cytować

Goba, N., Gweshengwe, B., Mabaso, A. i Kapungu, F. (2022) „Skuteczność środków ograniczania ubóstwa na obszarach podmiejskich Zimbabwe na przykładzie regionu podmiejskiego Mutasa South”, Wieś i Rolnictwo, (1 (194), s. 57–76. doi: 10.53098/wir012022/03.